Thursday, October 30, 2014

Galvanizing underwater adventures

Diving pioneers and innovators: a series of in-depth interviews / Bret Gilliam. Published by New World Publications, Jacksonville, Florida, 2007.

It is said that where there’s a person’s face in an illustration, it will capture our attention, at least we will tend to gaze at it. Photographic illustrations with certain qualities, either informational or aesthetically pleasing, tend to ornament the text with artistic flare. And in this 487 page book of interviews with notable divers, the text is suffused with both kinds of images, from the wealth of photographs taken by the divers during their careers to the style and arrangement of the text. Each chapter begins with a decorative portrait of a diver followed by biographical sketches about each of Bret’s interviewees and these provide a 360 degree picture of the persons he selected. Bret chose to interview 18 divers and names another 16 to whose memory he dedicated the book. The very last chapter is devoted to Gilliam himself, written by colleague Lina Hitchcock.

Two professions, diving and underwater photography, saw great development in their technologies beginning about the mid-20th century. Accomplishments range from the extension and modernization of diving equipment to camera housing and lighting. It is astonishing to realize that such an era of discovery and exploration has seen its heyday, and that the adventures of a few illuminate the deep underwater world, remaining accessible in film and still images.

The Library’s collection of books about deep diving, diving equipment, histories and the biographies of heroes of the diving world are greatly increased through a recent generous donation of works on the subject the world over. Please call or email the Library for more information.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Survival on a Pacific reef, eating coconuts and turtle meat

Divine Providence: the Wreck and Rescue of the JULIA ANN. / Fred E. Woods. Published by CFI, an Imprint of Cedar Fort, Inc, Springville, Utah, 2014.

A new resource in the Library is “Divine Providence the Wreck and Rescue of the JULIA ANN” by Fred E. Woods. The book is an account of mid-19th century Mormons, whose faith prompts them to leave their Australian homes and take passage on the barkentine JULIA ANN at Sydney bound for San Pedro, California. Anticipating a journey of 3 months, shipwrecked voyagers found subsistence on the lonely island reef in local flora and fauna on Manuae in the Society Islands; the original group of 63 crew and passengers had become some 50. The group remained at Tahiti into the following year, before their eventual rescue by another ship bound for the American West Coast.

The book is an account of their story and much more. For researchers beginning a study of immigration and crossing the Pacific Ocean in sailing ships of the mid-1850s, it is a trove of published primary sources in the form of letters, articles, portraits, and biographies. To prepare the reader for the details surrounding the wreck on October 3, 1855, background is given on the Mormon faith and the “call to gather. Articles and journal entries by Church leaders describe the history of the then-budding religious group known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, people for whom the wide-spread mission of the Church had come full-circle: they were now called back to the home church in North America. The call was the instruction from the Church fathers to resolve the disparate nature of the Morman Church and to build up a unified church in North America.

The history of Mormons in the United States in the 1850s is tied to the migration stories of many thousands seeking Zion, a religious mecca recognized by the Mormons or Latter Day Saints, sometimes called “Saints”. Difficulties facing travelers to the center of Zion on the West Coast or in a Western state would be no more or less grueling for other groups except that Mormons for over 25 years had experienced a diaspora of their members to far-flung countries such as Great Britain and Australia and were then in the process of calling them back.

Practicing Mormons in Australia had endured persecution for their faith and were anxious to join in the gathering. Even so, migration from one country to another in the 1850s was an undertaking fraught with danger, involving overseas and overland travel; some travelers would never arrive at their intended destination, being buried at sea or in a grave on some unknown and foreign land. Particularly arduous were long ocean passages over the Pacific Ocean, a body of water fed by rogue and unforgiving storms, hidden coral reefs, and islands charted incongruous with reality at best. A ship’s captain and crew were charged with responsibilities for which no guarantee existed, even if their reputations, commendable.

The captain of the barkentine JULIA ANN, was Benjamin Franklin Pond, whose experience commanding the JULIA ANN in a first voyage from Sydney to San Francisco would have prepared him for the second voyage. But charts were not always accurate: in his autobiography, the reef on which the ship was wrecked, was located on his charts to be “from sixty to ninety miles too much to windward”, hence the miscalculation resulted in tragedy. Of the passengers and crew aboard, 5 were taken by the waves which freely claimed them, at the point of the ship's impact with the reef.

Most helpful for visualizing the story, the book carries a DVD illuminating the autobiography of Captain William Pond, which details you may read and/or watch as a reenactment of the shipwreck on October 3, 1855.

Thursday, July 3, 2014

Art in Travel

The Museum's collections include 20th century travel brochures, an artful array of photographs depicting exotic destinations, accomodations aboard the shipping line's vessels and suggestions for best travel seasons.

This travel brochure or travel leaflet was published by NYK Line, likely in the 1950s. It features a full global map on one side accompanied by photographs the ships, inside and out, and on the flip side, a description of the most popular attractions in Japan and China.

"To the Far East: Japan and China and Around the World advertised luxurious travel to far-away destinations, circa 1950-1960.

Visit the Museum web site for more on its collections.

Friday, May 2, 2014

Stories: Joe Fellows' yacht.

Joe Fellows, a young boatbuilder in 1899, beside the construction of his yacht, MINERVA.

This account from Pacific Motor Boat of Fellows’ early experience building river steamers in San Francisco appeared in Pacific Motor Boat, October 1940 issue in an article entitled: “Joe Fellows – Boat Builder”. The author sought out details about Fellows’s early intrigue with boat building and the throes of ship construction at the water’s edge where nature could trump human efforts at will. Fellows was no stranger to near disaster, which may be why he kept cool and calm, and survived the experience. Here’s a selection from the biographical sketch:

“By the winter of 1889-90 Joe, now a lanky fellow of 24 and a first rate artisan, had found his way west to the Columbia River where he began work on his first major boatbuilding job, a 175-foot river steamer. At the start of construction, the hull lay 30 feet up the bank broadside to the shore but the river rose so fast that caulking was done standing in knee-deep water. The river rose 47 feet in six weeks, over a foot a day, and it was a race between Joe’s crew and the Columbia. But the river won and the current swept the barely completed caulked hull off the beach and down the stream with fifty men trying to hold her. Finally they snubbed her to the bank.

Thus began Joe Fellows’ half century of designing, construction and sailing all manner of craft in West Coast waters… “.

Read more about Joe Fellows here, and in 1904 and more from 1929.

Right of Passage - Stories, 1904

Two stories about Fellows stand out from the usual biographies written about him for the 50th anniversary of his firm in 1949. One chronicles just how much a daredevil appears to take chances, while the earlier story here tells of sailing home during a spring storm in San Pedro Bay.

Joe Fellows' yacht MINERVA with passengers and crew, circa 1910.

The earlier news clippings is over 100 years old, it’s the one from the LA Times, May 3, 1904, entitled: "Six Lost in Stormy Sea", with the subtitle, “Searchers Fail in Hunt for Fellows Party”. By 1904, the Joe Fellows Yacht and Launch Company had grown from a one-person firm employing several industrious engineers and tradesmen. Joe had taken them for their mutual enjoyment on an overnight excursion to Catalina and the crew had passed the first half of the journey without incident. Then came a spring storm and the party had to outride the storm by sailing leeward of it for 24 hours---they were inside the Bay, but unable to cross it to the Harbor and safety. It was Joe’s decision but his crew’s safety was foremost in his mind.

Here’s a selection from the news article, “Cheers of Joy for Mariners”, published May 4, 1904:

As the Minerva passed up the inner harbor the crowd that lined the wharves cheered the return of the missing mariners, who waved their caps and cheered in return.

In relating his experiences since Sunday, Captain Fellows says he left the harbor of Avalon because his anchor was dragging and he feared the destruction of the little yawl. Although the wind was blowing a hurricane from the northwest Fellows and his crew of five men did not fear that the little craft would not withstand the gale, and boldly put to sea. The Minerva stood off from Avalon for San Pedro but on account of the severity of the storm, at night they found themselves about five miles off Long Beach. Seeing that it would be impossible to make the inner harbor of San Pedro, Fellows and the crew of the Minerva decided to tack back and forth until the wind should abate.

On the second tack made off Long Beach, the jib of the yawl was blown away, so the only course left for Capt. Fellows was to run before the wind. At this time the wind was blowing great guns, and the Minerva sped before it like a fishing schooner before a South Sea hurricane. Capt. Fellows figured that in about 10 hours he could make San Diego. At length the wind abated and they found themselves about thirty-five miles southeast of Santa Catalina Island early Monday morning… This morning about 7 o’clock the Minerva was sighted by the Clemente and Challenger, which were out with searching parties. The joy felt when the Minerva flew the signal “All’s Well” would be difficult of description…

Capt. Fellows says that while he and his crew suffered inconvenience and were drenched, there was at no time any fear but what they would pull through, and were it not for the anxiety their absence would cause the friends and families of the mariners, none of them would seriously object to a repetition of the experience.

See more stories about Joe Fellows.

Thursday, May 1, 2014

Right of Passage - Stories, 1929

Joe Fellows with two passengers, engages the engine of his speedboat, "Fellows 2", in the waters near Santa Catalina Island and Los Angeles.

Two stories about Joe Fellows stand out from the usual biographies written about him for the 50th anniversary of the firm, Fellows & Stewart, Inc., in 1949. One chronicles just how much a daredevil appears to take chances, while the earlier story tells of sailing home during a spring storm in San Pedro Bay.

This story tells about the daredevil in Fellows---from an account of a ride with Joe Fellows written by the editor of Pacific Motor Boat in the April 1929 issue, p. 12, 13 and 17.

“… I really didn’t know just what a red-blooded thrill was until the afternoon last January when went to sea with Joe Fellows in his forty-mile an hour runabout and bucked the big ground-swells in Santa Barbara Channel.

...It was late in the afternoon when I drove up to the Fellows & Stewart boatyard at Wilmington… Joe fellows greeted us as we alighted from the car and after showing us a number of interesting yachts and work boats under construction at the yard, told us that if we had time to take a ride with him, he would show us more of the harbor in half and hour than we could see in an automobile all day long… When we got into his boat and he opened up the throttle, we went speeding down the harbor so fast that we wondered if the channel was long enough for us to stop in before we came to the end of it.

I thought we were running at maximum speed when we came down the channel, but as we rounded the lighthouse, Joe stepped on something and then the little ship seemed to light right out from under us and the manner in which the State of California began to fade away in our rear made me feel homesick for my native land.

Presently Joe spied the AVALON off across the channel coming in from Catalina Island. The AVALON is a big boat and she makes about 16 knots and throws up a sea behind her like a torpedo destroyer. Joe circled around the boat until he was off about a quarter of a mile and then at full speed he headed directly for the big seas that were curling back astern of her…

Then as a final thriller, we ran alongside the AVALON at full speed and when we got even with her bow, cut straight across the front about eight feet ahead of her. Now it may be alright for Joe Fellows and Douglas Fairbanks to do stunts like that but I don’t have the experience and probably don’t carry as much life insurance as “Doug” and all I’ve got to say is that while it’s thrilling now to look back upon it, I must confess that we were putting more faith in the motor than the reputation of even the splendid engine could possibly warrant…

Ride Story end

Read more stories about Joe Fellows...

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Your Right of Passage - 2

Portrait of the Joe Fellows Family, Joe and Josie Fellows with their two sons, Robert and Rusty, circa 1912.

Joe Fellows was born in Barth, England in 1865, immigrating to first to Canada as a boy and then later to the West Coast in 1890’s. His trade was designing sail and motor boats and he opened a boat shop on Terminal Island in 1896. The firm grew from a rather small operation into a well-known and respected firm that built, repaired and refurbished boats.

Before retiring in 1937, Joe led an active and dynamic life designing and selling pleasure boats. Of the boats designed by Joe Fellows, his racing sailboats, motor cruisers and speedboats were prototypical of classic designs.

Looking at the photographs of Joe and the family, it would appear he placed a high value on travelling in the state of California with his family.

Snapshot of Joe and Josie Fellows on a Road Trip with Rusty, circa 1915.

An account from a magazine tells of Joe’s early experience building river steamers in San Francisco appeared in Pacific Motor Boat, October 1940 issue in an article entitled: “Joe Fellows – Boat Builder”. According to the author, Fellows was no stranger to near disaster, which may be why he kept cool and calm, and survived the experience. For a selection from the biographical sketch, please see Stories, Joe Fellows' yacht..

Two other stories about Fellows stand out from the usual biographies written about him for the 50th anniversary of his firm in 1949. One chronicles just how much a daredevil appears to take chances, while an earlier story tells of sailing home during a spring storm in San Pedro Bay.

Your Right of Passage - 1

Joe Fellows standing atop a granite marker in California, circa 1930.

In these posts entitled Your Right of Passage, a selection of photographic prints and a character sketch of Joe Fellows previews the Museum exhibit: Fellows and Stewart, Inc., Boatbuilders in Los Angeles Harbor, scheduled to open at the Los Angeles Maritime Museum in May, 2014.

The new exhibit of photographs from the Fellows & Stewart Collection showcases a history of the Los Angeles harbor boatbuilders' firm, following it from its inception until the late 1960s.

By all accounts, founder Joe Fellows's passion for boats and sailing, motorsailing, racing, and speedboating was equalled by his sense of business: he built a long-standing and versatile shipyard. He died in 1942; a Victory ship built by California Shipbuilding Corporation a year later, was christened JOE FELLOWS in his honor.

Visual History and the Right of Passage

Near the roadways as they push through the Sierra Nevada and mountain ranges in California, there are geodetic markers or benchmarks indicating the land surveys taken by the U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey to map out the western slopes and they sometimes carry a granite monument that easily marks the spot, especially where snow in season may cover them. Mountain peaks and valleys surround the traveler, and it’s a challenge to scale the steep slopes. Dramatic scenery unfolds as the roadway. For the hiker, biker, auto enthusiast who seeks a challenge, it’s not unlike a voyage in that your right of passage is subtly gained.

You can imagine Joe Fellows was a man who dared to be right on the cutting edge of any pursuit he fancied. One of these concerns was his boatbuilding firm on Terminal Island, but in his personal life, too, he displayed courage and commitment. In the many photographic prints left to his heirs, there is a full engagement with the firm, his family and genuine interest in travel by car over the state of California.

More on Joe Fellows...

right of passage: This term comes from international law at sea and refers to the confidence of a ship to pass through waters of a country without causing international concern.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Reenvisioning 400 Years

The Way of the Ship: America’s Maritime History Reenvisioned, 1600-2000. / Alex Roland, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Alexander Keyssar. Published by John Wiley & Sons, 2008. 521 p., illustrations in both black and white and color. Included are a glossary, index, appendices and notes.

The Way of the Ship charts the growth of maritime America and its strengths in both overseas trade and inland transport.

The Way of the Ship is a treasury of essays written by professors of history and social policy at American universities. Their contributions articulate periods of the nation’s history in 45 chapters plus Conclusion and Epilogue. Supporting these are the section on notes, which are essentially a chapter by chapter bibliography, important by itself as a source of present-day literature on maritime history.

If you did not know much about United States history, reading The Way of the Ship would gain you a measure of knowledge about American economics and trade as increased by history’s powerful and influential mariners. Author Roland calls them “analytical threads” and describes these five as forming the backbone of the essays: economics, policy, labor, military, and technology.

The essays build American history chronologically and give a fascinating review of who held the reins in each era. five of the notable players were Elias Haskett Derby, in 1781 a newly minted American millionaire who invested in the New Republic; Robert Fulton, who pioneered inland steamship transport in the nation’s first 25 years; Henry Shreve, taking up the challenge after Fulton, reinvented Mississippi River trade from horse-drawn boats to steamboats; and Donald MacKay, iconic shipbuilder of clipper ships in Boston; all were influential in the nation’s economic expansion between 1781 and the American Civil War.

Each of the five parts of the book offers a title that summarizes the particular cultural consequence brought on by maritime commercial enterprise. Part I looks at the fledgling nation between 1600 and 1783; Part II covers 1783-1861, when the United States first tasted freedom as a nation and expanded during the Golden Age; Part III is dedicated to labor and the Gilded Age, from 1861-1914; Part IV is called “The Weight of War”, 1914-1956; Part V is devoted to cargo and bulk carriers on ever larger vessels called megaships.

There are four appendices displaying tables of data. For example you could look year by year from 1790-1994 for the values of U.S. cargo versus that from foreign nations. Or review maritime labor between 1925 and 2000. Or see the U.S. shipbuilding totals in any year from 1769-1968. There is also a glossary of shipping terms, and of course notes and an index.

This book is really textual in character, rather than a resource for images. Is it a reference text? Yes, to the extent that the book is chronologically arranged and its sections are listed with specific chapter headings: you could choose a time period from the section titles, then choose an appropriate topic. From there it is a matter of concentration on the message, both concise and full of detail. American maritime history is written with heroes leading the economic force inherent in a robust merchant marine.

There are illustrations, but far fewer than in an encyclopedic reference. Of the black and white illustrations many of these are maps. Color photographs represent maritime paintings by marine painter John Stobart. However, a photograph, p. 120, shows the statue by Howard Roberts of Robert Fulton, whose 1803 steamboat pioneered inland waterway steam-boating in the United States. Roberts’ statue now stands in the United States’ U.S. Capitol building’s Statuary Hall.

Books on sailing ships are selected from the Library collections at the Los Angeles Maritime Museum. More books are available in the collection than appear online. For example books on voyages and travel accounts, battles, and descriptions of historic ships are not listed online but are available at the Library. For more information view our catalog online at

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Slave or Free in the Age of Liberty

Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom, and Deception in the New World. / Greg Grandin. Published by Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2014.

Weaving together two seemingly disparate sources of historical evidence, from archives with that from literature and social commentary, the book describes a history of slavery in Latin America from the point of view of the "Alabaster-skinned New Englander", Amasas Delano, from the family of the future American president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The aftermath of a revolt aboard the slave ship Tryal off the coast of Chile leaves only its master, no crew, and only the cargo of slaves aboard. Ship master Delano in passing by had noticed its distress and went to its aid with food and water. Not a slave trader but a professed anti-slaver and seal hunter, Delano boards the Tryal, offering provisions he judged would be helpful. It is later that he learns of the uprising and then paradoxically turns on the rebels, obliterating the aims of their mutiny and his philanthropic gesture.

The complexity of an economic and social system is described through the writer’s ruse, showing how it played out from the point of view of an outsider. Grandin makes use of Herman Melville’s Benito Cereno, a little-known novel published about 1850, about the mutinied captain of the Tryal, as well as accounts in Delano’s biographical A Narrative of Voyages and Travels in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, published in 1817.

Slavery in South America pre-dated slavery in the United States by almost 200 years; it was common for Spanish mercenaries to bring slaves to the Americas since the 1540s. See page 7, Introduction.

See more books from the collections of the Los Angeles Maritime Museum Research Library online in the catalog at

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

A French captain in California, 1826-1827

A Voyage to California, the Sandwich Islands, and Around the World in the Years 1826-1829 / August Duhaut-Cilly; Translated and Edited by August Fruge & Neal Harlow. Published by University of California Press, 1999, c1997.

Duhaut-Cilly's journal first came to my attention in January when an exchange between a researcher and a well-informed historian of ship-wrecks pointed out that the book, A Voyage to California, the Sandwich Islands, and Around the World in the Years 1826-1829, held some details about a ship, the Teinmouth, which had foundered off the coast of Baja California in 1826.

As described by the publisher, the value of a diary is far-reaching, as Duhaut-Cilly's accounts cover his journeys in detail revealing the lives of California missionaries and their subjects of the period.

In Duhaut-Cilly's times and for not long afterward, California missions operated as religious communities as they had for about two hundred years. When Duhaut-Cilly sailed back to France in 1829, the missions were reduced to military outposts or secularized at the behest of the Mexican government. Until then foreign visitors were treated with respect when some advantage was apparent. A fellow Catholic, and as a speaker of their language, Duhaut-Cilly was welcomed for news he might have of Spain or France, the internet of the day being the chance meeting or available companionship of fellow citizens. He was not only adept at sea but also with the great range of peoples and cultures encountered in the Americas and islands of the Pacific. The merchant-captain seemed to be masterful with his ability to speak three languages, French, English and Spanish and to qualify with words and illustration the features of life in early California. This may have increased his personal value to the padres in the two years spent in the Californias (Alta and Baja) but couldn't resolve their lack of interest in goods he attempted to trade before continuing on his journey to Hawai’i (the Sandwich Islands). Perhaps this was because fate dealt him a business partner who swindled him out of his chance of becoming rich, by secretly sending out a ship on a similar journey to reach Hawai'i ahead of him; it was after his California adventures that he finally reached China by way of Hawai’i, trading in sandalwood and furs before returning to France.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Challenging the Deep: Thirty Years of Undersea Adventure / Hans Hass. Published in 1973 by William Morrow and Company, New York.

The book-jacket says it all: how Hass was a pioneer scuba diver, innovative photographer and biologist who spent a few decades pursuing a quest underwater to uncover the secrets of life. At last a realization came that answers to his quest were to be found on land as well and he withdrew from undersea adventures to examine the evidence of how animals live on land.

Challenging the Deep contains color and black and white photography of sharks, coral, strikingly colorful tropical fish and portraits of himself, scientists who worked with him, and a few of his family, including Lotte his wife, son and daughter.

Translated by Ewald Osers, this biography of Hass, reveals what he thought about what he saw underwater. His was an inquiring nature; in describing an encounter with a sperm whale, he says (page 193):

"Without an eye an animal is not animal… Even when an animal attacks us we look not at its mouth or its paws but at its eyes.

The eyes of the sperm whale are quite minute and are located ten to thirteen feel down the side of its head. With them the sperm whale can see a short distance to either side of it, but cannot see what lies ahead… How then does the sperm whale orientate itself when it perceives two totally different images?"

Find the book in our online catalog at

Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Hans Hass, biologist and photographer

On the cover of “The Journal of Diving History” for the Summer 2013 issue is a portrait of Hans Hass, an Austrian zoologist and visionary scuba diver, who died last June.

Collections of Hass’s photographs were published as art books, showcasing the work he had accomplished as an underwater photographer. He made still and motion pictures, and used a Zeiss 16mm Movicon camera to make documentary films. His main contributions to the biology of marine life in the Red and Caribbean Seas were achieved in part with camera equipment and waterproof housing specially designed by Hass, later called the Rolleimarin system.

For about a decade there were underwater film festivals in the United States, with the first in Hollywood from 1957-1962 and in other cities after that. Dr. Hass received recognition in 1959, two years after Jacques Cousteau; he later received an award from the Academy of Underwater Arts and Sciences.

Interestingly, his work did not stop with underwater photography but continued in the field of biology. In his model, all life was interconnected and on this philosophy he formulated “Energon Theory” which covered the evolution of inanimate objects as well as humans.

Professor Hass wrote more than 30 books on his dive findings, featuring his studies of marine mammals; he made documentary films, some becoming internationally acknowledged. One of his films was shown in 1952 to American audiences. “Under the Red Sea” captured the adventures of diving and was meant to be documentary in nature. In Great Britain his documentaries Diving to Adventure became a television series. His aim was to bring the scientific point of view forward to educate the public, introducing underwater biology.

To read the full article in The Journal of Diving History, "Remembering Hans Hass, the Pioneer of Pioneers" by Leslie Leaney, contact the Historical Diving Society.

For reference questions, please contact the Los Angeles Maritime Museum Research Library.

Wednesday, January 8, 2014

Faces of War: the Untold Story of Edward Steichen's WWII Photographers. by Mark D. Faram. Published by Berkley Caliber, New York, 2009.

Author Mark Faram brings little-known names in navy war photography to the forefront in his 2009 book, Faces of War. His contribution is a significant tribute to their effort. Through this book we are aware of photographers who were Southern Californians and who were selected by Edward Steichen to create a vision for Americans of the battles on the oceans and overseas during World War II. Dwight Long, Max Miller, and Charles Kerlee, originally from California, are among the ten chosen by Steichen (fashion and art photographer already well-known nationally)beginning in 1943.

Faces is an unusal review of the war, told in pictures many times, but the text here is a mix of ship and photographic biography. Because of how Americans then viewed the war in the Pacific, it is as if the images are the history of the naval battles, as far as those who weren't there are concerned, with captions and notes in the text mainly focused on the position and importance of a ship and the ones who filmed it and its crew in action and at rest. There are many portraits in the book as well, of Steichen and his photographers and of admirals and sailors. A particularly interesting introduction, "A Brief History of naval Photography" precedes the main portion of the book. At the end, Faram intimates that he much later studied photography in a course that had been offered since 1963 in photojournalism at Syracuse University, heritage of Steichen's team of photographers then twenty years earlier.

Asia in the maritimes

Asia Looks Seaward: Power and Maritime Strategy. Edited by Toshi Yoshihara and James R. Holmes. Published by Praeger Security International, 2008.

Toshi Yoshihara, an author and editor, is professor in the department of strategy and policy at the U.S. Naval War College. Most recently he was named John A. van Beuren Chair of Asia-Pacific Studies at the College. His vision seems to expose the maritime histories of Asian countries which directly border on Pacific waters, and where transportation of goods takes place in the busiest spheres of influence. Therefore he is an author to watch for his astute analysis of the interntaional policy in the region.

In this volume, in essays written by strategists and researchers, compare the policies and strategies of Great Britain and the United States regarding the region's maritime past and trade in oil and consumer goods. To get a sense of the importance of east-west exchange, it remains to look at trade and its affect on political ideals, on both sides of the pacific Ocean. Chapter four, "Clipper Ships to Carriers: U.S. Maritime Strategy in Asia" by Bernard Cole, p. 46 to 69, discusses how the U.S. reacted to trouble in Asian waters. Drawing on his perspective of the history, he claims (page 47), "The United States established an Asian naval presence even before it had a Pacific coast." That is a stunning comparison because it shows that trade in Chinese ports had been established for many years (probably almost half an century) by the early 1800s.

The book begins with the essay, "Imperial China and the Sea", by John Curtis Perry, and ends with "China-Southeast Asia Relations Problems and Prospects", by John Garofano. Author Garofano is co-editor of Deep Currents and Rising Tides, reviewed here earlier, which also drew word from Yoshihara and Holmes, editors of "Asia Looks Seward".

The Great Ice of 1973

It's all about the ice, even more significant this week with temperatures 14-degrees below zero, freezing the waters in many townships and cities on the Great Lakes (and of course in much of the eastern half of the U.S.) Detroit, especially since it is expected that they will get this treatment three times annually, according to wikipedia's Detroit page, actually lies on the Detroit River which feeds into Lake Erie.

In the image above, the city of Detroit lies just to the west of the river's debut out of Lake St. Clair (the middle splash of blue on this Landsat satellite photo.) The top of Lake Erie, one of the five Great Lakes, is shown at the bottom of the image.

Editors of The Detroit Marine Historian for the issue pictured above in black and white in February 1973 wrote in "The Log" on page 2 that: "In the 'Every little bit helps" department, the Ontario Provincial government has alloted a $7,000 grant to put the Muskoka Lakes passenger steamer SEGWUN into winter drydock. This should prevent further deterioration of the steamer-museum and permit a new chance at restoring her to active service. The Sierra Club, the national environmental and ecological advocate group, has doubts about extended navigation on the Great Lakes (emphasis mine)but this time their concern is less over the fish and other wildlife than over the men who man the midwinter fleets. Jonathan Ela, midwest Sierra representative pointed out that the danger of vessel breaking up in cold weather is greater than during the normal sailing season "and a seaman falling in would have five minutes to live."